(This shot could only be achieved with a long lens from where my vehicle was positioned)
Wildlife on an African safari is nothing less than spectacular, but creating truly memorable images can be challenging. Animals don’t appear on command and when they do, making sure we get a great photo isn’t high on their list of priorities. A professional wildlife photographer knows to hedge her bets—planning ahead is just as important to capture the best pictures of wild animals as what you do in the moment.
If you’re thinking about booking a safari adventure, below are some things to consider before you take off, as well as tips for capturing beautiful images once you’re there.
Bring a long lens
If you’re really want to capture compelling photos, bring a long lens. Can you take beautiful photos without one? Sure. But your odds go up dramatically with a longer lens because it gives you the flexibility to shoot images with more variation. My favorite Canon wildlife lens is the 200-400mm f/4L IS USM. It’s easy to use and has a built-in 1.4 converter which extends the focal length to 560mm. It’s heavy (8lbs) but it’s worth the sore muscles.
(An example of a detail shot)
If you don’t own a long lens—and most people don’t (including moi)—I recommend renting. You can use a fantastic lens for far less than what it would cost to buy it. I’ve used Borrowlenses and LensRentals depending on which had the best prices. Both are equally good and will ship straight to your door.
Bring two camera bodies
In an ideal world it’s best to have two camera bodies at your disposal, one equipped with a long lens and the other with a wider angle. Sightings can change quickly, two cameras help you to be nimble and not miss shots changing lenses. As with a long lens, consider renting a second body just for the trip.
Arrange for a private vehicle
The norm on safari is guests share vehicles. It’s a great way to meet new people and share an amazing adventure. That said, it also requires compromise. If you want to look for leopards when your jeep mates want to see elephants, you’ll have to be flexible. It also means if you want to stay and watch a sighting and they want to go back to camp, it can be challenging. A private vehicle enables you to dictate your game drives. It’s not an inexpensive option, but if it’s in your budget I highly recommend it.
(What is actually a yawn looks more like a roar)
Choose camps that —
Have a watering hole
A camp with a watering hole means thirsty animals come to you, increasing your opportunities to snag your best wildlife photos. Watering holes are positioned far enough away from guest tents to be safe but close enough to be able to photograph the ebb and flow of wildlife throughout the day. At Swala Camp in Tanzania, I watched 30 bull elephants for over an hour vie for dominance. During the night, a pride of roaring lions lulled me to sleep. At Molori Safari Lodge in South Africa, the main deck in front of its watering hole was my go-to spot for photos of elephants, zebra and a wide-range of other species.
(Two lions from the same pride nuzzle each other hello on top of a mound)
Have a hide
If you’re already talking watering holes, you might as well see if the camp has a hide too. Saruni Samburu in northern Kenya and Mashatu Tent Camp in Botswana have hides strategically placed around watering holes so guests can get really close safely. The proximity is perfect for capturing more intimate photos.
Can go off-road
There are two kinds of camps: those which can drive off-road to follow an animal, and those that cannot. The reasons vary depending on regional laws and whether a camp is located on private or public property. The benefit of going off-road is that you can get closer to a sighting. That said, if the camp you want doesn’t offer it, don’t fret, it’s not a deal breaker. I’ve been happy with my photographs either way. But if everything is equal and you can go to a camp that can go off-road, do it.
(If there is something for a cheetah to climb on, it will)
Have special features geared towards photography
Some camps offer unique features catering to photographers of all levels. At Mara Plains and Ol Donyo in Kenya, owners Beverly and Dereck Joubert, famed wildlife documentarians and National Geographic artists in residence, have created three-day workshop for guests under the Wild Studio banner. (It’s an extra fee and can be arranged when you book your reservation.) A professional photographer will work with you to create a noteworthy portfolio of wildlife images. They also offer helpful editing sessions and technical support if needed. Both camps, whether you take the workshop or not, provide basic camera equipment for each tent and use vehicles modified with customized camera supports.
At Singita Ebony and Boulders Lodges in South Africa, the camps have photographic gear you can rent by the day or for your whole trip. It’s a wonderful alternative to lugging gear from home. They also have 27” iMac computers with Retina displays loaded with the latest versions of Adobe Lightroom and Photoshop.
Know your gear
Whether you’re using an iPhone or a top of the line DSLR, don’t wait until you’re in Africa before familiarizing yourself with how your gear. Nothing is worse than losing a perfect shot because you can’t find the right button.
Tell your guide you want to take good photos
Most safari-goers don’t put an emphasis on photography, therefore, be sure to let the camp up front and tell your guide when you get there. A guide’s job is to make sure you see as much wildlife as possible but that doesn’t mean the views will be from angles best for photography. If your guide knows what you want he’ll keep it in mind when he positions the car.
(A wildebeest crossing offers a lot of photographic possibilities)
The reality of wildlife photography is there’s a lot of waiting, but if you put in the time you’ll usually be rewarded. For example, a cat in a tree has to come down sometime. If it’s near sundown there’s a good chance you’ll see it descend to hunt. I waited nearly 3 hours (which is extreme) for a unique shot of a lion in a tree, and almost lost it to the untimely arrival of another jeep entering the frame. But in the end, I was thrilled with the results.
Anticipate animal behavior
Safari guides are experts in animal behavior. Ask your guide to tell you what he thinks the animals you’re looking at will do, so that you can be ready to photograph it. Here are a few things I always look for:
- Lions within a pride are very social creatures, if one approaches another get ready for them to nuzzle each other or start to play.
- If a lion is laying down and starts to yawn repeatedly, it’s likely to get up. I have no idea why but it always seems to be the case. It may only walk a few feet and plop down again or it may decide to move to a new place. Either way, it’s moving.
- Speaking of yawning: A lion yawning is a deceptively dramatic shot your audience will think is a roar or a snarl. Don’t miss it.
(This is an example of an environmental photo. Framing the shot so that the tree and the kill are included, providing the image with context.)
- If you spot an elephant kicking at the ground, there’s a good chance it will use the loosened soil to dust itself by throwing the dirt on its body with its trunk.
- Cheetahs love to see the terrain from higher ground so if there is a termite mound or fallen tree get ready for them to climb it.
( If one zebra starts to roll inevitably others will follow)
- When walking single file through the bush, a zebra that rolls on the ground will inspire the zebras behind it to roll in the very same place.
- If you’re watching zebras drink at a watering hole, their concern for predators makes them run away at the drop of a hat, only to return seconds later.
- Wildebeest gather in a giant clump at the water’s edge before attempting to cross a river during the migration, but once one wildebeest is brave enough to start swimming the rest of the herd is bound to follow. Make sure you’re ready.
(View from the main deck: Elephants at the Molori Safari Lodge watering hole.)
Shoot with a wider Frame
An animal can move erratically so keep your frame wider than you might for any other subject. You’ll be less likely to cut off something important if it changes direction, starts to run, or does almost anything else you’re not ready for.
Get a mixture of close-ups, environmental portraits and details
A good collection of images will include variation. Shoot close-ups, environmental portraits (an animal in its surroundings), and details such as the trunk and tusks above.
(A classic panning shot. Shutter speed 1/40 of a sec)
Try a panning shot
A great way to convey movement is with a panning shot where part of the image is in focus (usually the head) while the rest of the photo is blurred. It takes practice but once you get the hang of it it’s a great effect.
- Set your camera to continues shooting or burst mode
- Lower your shutter speed. I range between 1/30 to 1/60. Play with the speed to get the look you want.
- Focus on the head of your subject while holding down the shutter as it runs in front of you. It doesn’t really work if they are coming at you. The lower the shutter speed the more abstract the blur will be.
A version of this post first appeared on Travel Past 50, but I wanted to also share it with you here.
More photography tips to help you make the most out of your images
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